Tag Archives: language

Programming on Electronic Devices

Computers cannot interpret human languages. They have their own language which is known as binary language. It is the language of 0’s and 1’s. So to command or program a computer to get the desired results one had to first convert the program from human language to the binary language. This was done by converting each line of the program into binary language and feed it into the memory line by line. This was how the computers in those days were programmed.

Shortly after the invention of John Von Neumann’s models, the first ever programming language to be programmed on an electronic device named Short Code was devised in the year 1949 A.D. In this language human help was needed to convert the program into binary language and feed it into the memory. This job of converting the program line by line into binary language was proving to be a tedious and time consuming work.

This is when the compiler was invented. The first compiler was named A-0 by its inventor, Mr. Grace Hopper in the year 1951 A.D. A compiler is a program which automatically converts the human language into the machine understandable language that is the binary language. The invention of the compiler made programming simple and very efficient. Now a lot of time was saved as the machine could itself translate human language into the machine readable language and the programmer was saved from the tedious job of interpreting.

In the year 1957 A.D. the first major programming language which appeared due to the inventions and work of earlier scientists was FORTRAN-FORmula TRANslating. This programming language was invented by International Business Machines (IBM). They invented FORTRAN for computing science related queries. The language was a breakthrough in programming. It was a big step towards the start of making high end languages. Today FORTRAN is nothing compared to modern languages because it contained limited commands such as DO, GOTO and IF statements, but these commands were innovative in those days.

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The Basic: C Programming will always be popular

C is a general purpose computer coding language which works closely with hardware. C was invented by Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson with the help of their team mates at AT&T Bell Lab’s USA in the year 1969 but major development was made in the language in the year 1973 when it was actually published under the title “The C Programming Language”, the same year.

One would wonder why Dennis and Ken named the language as C. The reason is that in the process of developing the language they had taken a lot of features from the existing language which was called B. So the language which they created was an advanced version of the B language, which is why they named their language C, funnily.

C is a basic language which is the building block of mostly all the languages present today. The language is platform independent. That means C does not need any specific platform for running. It can work on any operating system. There are many compilers which run C. As the language works close to the hardware it uses minimal space. Also the language is easy to understand as it has a user friendly language.

If one wants to become a programmer, this is the first language he should learn. Also nowadays in academics, this language is made compulsory in computer studies. All the new languages like Java, Microsoft .Net and many other languages have used C language as their building mechanism. All these languages are easy to learn if one has knowledge of the C language.

The boundary of C language is vast. It s not limited to just programming of applications. In fact it is also used in graphical applications. There are many games which uses high end graphics built using the language. The C language is so old compared to modern languages but despite that it still it stands apart from all these powerful languages.



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The Beginning of PHP

PHP – Hypertext preprocessor is basically a computer coding language. The language was designed by Rasmus Lerdorf and was developed by the PHP group. PHP was created in 1994 by Rasmus Lerdorf to help maintain his personal homepage.

He had written a bunch of Common Gateway Interface (CGI) binaries via the C coding language and wanted to restore a trivial set of Perl scripts which he had been using to preserve his homepage by the CGI. He wanted to do this in order to check the traffic on his homepage. This later was released publicly as the first ever version of Hypertext Preprocessor on 8 June, 1995 named PHP/FI (Form Interpreter).

One would wonder why there is an extra letter P in the abbreviation. The reason being the language is initialized again and again, recursively and that’s why the abbreviation PHP. PHP is an essential, object-oriented language. PHP is extensively used as an all-purpose scripting language, which is particularly fitting for web development. The working of PHP is simple. PHP essentially uses a web server to run, which takes the PHP code as input and results in web pages as output.

PHP was originally created for designing dynamic web pages. Over the years the main focus of PHP has changed. Server side scripting is the spotlight of PHP now. Moreover PHP has been declared as free software by the free software association. It is available over the internet and any one can download it. Due to this reason PHP stands out in comparison with competitors like Microsoft’s ASP.NET system, mod_perl framework and Sun Microsystems’ JavaServer Pages as they are not free. The PHP parser can run with both, a web browser and a web server which help in providing dynamic content.
The following is a simple Hello World code example for PHP:

<?php
Echo ’Hello World!’;
?>
 


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